Spiritual practice in other religions.


In Theravada Buddhism, the generic term for spiritual cultivation is bhavana. The Pali word “yoga,” central to many early Buddhist texts, has been often translated as “Spiritual Practice.” 

In Zen Buddhism, meditation (called zazen), the writing of poetry (especially haiku), painting, calligraphy,
flower arranging, the Japanese tea ceremony and the maintenance of Zen gardens
are considered to be spiritual practices.
The Korean tea ceremony is also considered spiritual.


In Hinduism, the practice of cultivating spirituality is known as sadhana.
Japa, the silent or audible repetition of a mantra, is a common Hindu spiritual practice.

Tantric practices are shared in common between Hinduism and certain Buddhist (especially Tibetan Buddhist) schools, and involve the deliberate use of the mundane (worldly, physical or material) to access the supramundane (spiritual, energetic or mystical) realms.

Baha’i Faith

Prayer in the Bahá’í Faith refers to two distinct concepts: obligatory prayer and devotional prayer (general prayer). Both types of prayer are composed of reverent words which are addressed to God,
 and the act of prayer is one of the most important Bahá’í laws for individual discipline.


Rudolf Steiner gave an extensive set of exercises for spiritual development.
Some of these were intended for general use, while others were for certain professions,
including teachers, doctors, and priests, or were given to private individuals.

Martial arts

Some martial arts, like T’ai chi ch’uan, Aikido, and Jujutsu,
are considered spiritual practices by some of their practitioners.

New Age

Passage meditation was a practice recommended by Eknath Easwaran
which involves the memorization and silent repetition of passages of scripture from the world’s religions.

Adidam (the name of both the religion and practice) taught by Adi Da Samraj uses an extensive group of spiritual practices including ceremonial invocation (puja) and body disciplines such as exercise, a modified yoga,
dietary restrictions and bodily service. These are all rooted in a fundamental devotional practice of Guru bhakti based in self-understanding rather than conventional religious seeking.

The term Neotantra refers to a modern collection of practices and schools in the West
that integrates the sacred with the sexual, and de-emphasizes the reliance on Gurus.

Recent and evolving spiritual practices in the West have also explored the integration of aboriginal instruments such as the Didgeridoo, extended chanting as in Kirtan, or otherbreathwork taken outside of the context of Eastern lineages or spiritual beliefs, such as Quantum Light Breath.


Stoicism takes the view that philosophy is not just a set of beliefs or ethical claims, it is a way of life and discourse involving constant practice and training (e.g., asceticism). Stoic spiritual practices and exercises include contemplation of death and other events that are typically thought negative, training attention to remain in the present moment (similar to some forms of Eastern meditation), daily reflection on everyday problems and possible solutions, keeping a personal journal, and so on. Philosophy for a Stoic is an active process of constant practice and self-reminder.