(from the Latin Iudaismus, derived from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, and ultimately from the Hebrew יהודה, Yehudah, “Judah”; in Hebrew: יהדות, Yahadut,the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos)
is the religion, philosophy and way of life of the Jewish people.
A monotheistic religion originating in the Hebrew Bible (also known as the Tanakh) and explored in later texts such as the Talmud,
Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship God established with the Children of Israel.
Rabbinic Judaism holds that God revealed his laws and commandments to Moses on Mount Sinai
in the form of both the Written and Oral Torah.
Historically, this assertion was challenged by various groups such as the Sadducees
and Hellenistic Judaism during the Second Temple period;
the Karaites and Sabbateans during the early and later medieval period;
and among segments of the modern reform movements.
Liberal movements in modern times such as Humanistic Judaism may be nontheistic.